Types of Dough


The basic ingredient of nearly all biscuit dough’s is flour. To this is added sugar, fat and possibly a wide variety of other ingredients. The dough is bound together with water. As more fat is included in the recipe less water is required.

After mixing, the dough is divided up into small pieces of particular shape and size. These pieces are baked into biscuits. Whether the dough is processed into pieces by machine or by hand the consistency is very important.

The consistency, the feel, of dough is determined principally by the amount of water present and also by the temperature of the dough. Wetter and warmer dough’s are softer. The mixing of water with flour involves a number of changes but basically the hydration of the components of the flour is a relatively slow process. This means that some change, which affects the dough consistency, may continue to occur after the mixing has been completed. Thus, when considering the making of a biscuit dough one must think not only about what happens in the mixer but also in the period afterwards.


There are basically two types of biscuit dough, hard and short. The difference is in the consistency which in turn is determined by the amount of water available to hydrate the flour. When there is a high water content (and therefore a relatively low level of fat) the blending with the flour involves the formation of gluten from the hydrated proteins. The formation of gluten requires mechanical work, kneading, and thus we say that hard dough’s are “developed” doughs, referring to the mechanical action. When the quantity of fat is higher the amount of water is less and the mixing is designed so that little or no gluten is formed as the flour hydrates, this is called a short dough.


SA Series
Packaged Chillers
(integrated pump tank)
1.5Ton – 20Ton
Single / Dual Circuits
Single / Dual Pumps
SAE Series
Modular Chillers
(pump & tank on
separate skid)
1.5Ton – 200Ton
Single / Dual Circuits
SAR Series
Split Chillers
(Outdoor Condensing Unit)
(pump, tank, evaporator on
indoor skid)
1.5Ton – 200Ton
Single / Dual Circuits